DPS PetroChemical GC Systems - Application Notes


     Every one of these Petrochemical Applications can be analyzed using one of the Custom GC configurations of the Series 600 Lab GC. In addition, almost all can also be analyzed using the Companion 1, or the Companion 2 Portable GC Systems. Above all, each of these Custom GC Systems gives the same great results. So, whether your analyzing in the Lab, or in the factory, or out in the field, you can rest assured that your Petrochemical results will always be consistent.

Bio-Diesel - Glycerin

     Bio-diesel is a renewable fuel used as a substitute for petroleum diesel fuel. Biodegradable and nontoxic, bio-diesel is made from soy oil, vegetable oil, recycled cooking oil, or animal fat. Bio-diesel made from vegetable oils and animal fat perform like petroleum diesel, but are much cleaner burning with reduced emissions. A high content of free and total glycerin lead to buildup and poor engine performance. Consequently, the glycerin content is one indicator of the quality of the bio-diesel fuel. For your convenience, we configure the DPS Bio-diesel GC Analyzers to help you define the free and total glycerin content using our standard cool on-column injector, guard column, analytical column, and our sensitive FID detector. The fast heating and rapid cooling column oven in every DPS GC vastly increases your sample throughput. The fully integrated Bio-diesel GC Analyzer Systems are small, lightweight, and rugged to go where ever you need them. All PetroChemical DPS systems are modular for expandability, upgrades, and easy service.
Example Compounds:
Glycerin
Monoglycerides
Diglycerides
Triglycerides

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Bio-Fuels - Methanol & Ethanol

     With the dramatic increase in biofuels production around the world there is an ever increasing demand for the analysis of Methanol and Ethanol in these fuels. The classical method for analysis, ASTM Method D5501 uses very long columns (100 or 150m) to adequately separate these alcohols from other interfering compounds in these complex fuel mixtures, with run times of about 40 minutes. Many plants require the Ethanol content of the denatured fuels be analyzed before the fuel is transported, which is difficult with such long run times. The recent development of capillary columns for biofuels separations has helped tremendously. We configure the DPS Alcohols GC System with the latest designed high resolution capillary column and the sensitive FID detector to quickly detect these compounds in less than 10 minutes. The fast heating and rapid cooling column oven in every DPS GC assures rapid sample turnaround. The fully integrated Alcohols GC Systems are small and lightweight and all Petrochemical DPS systems are modular for expandability, upgrades, and easy service.
Example Compounds:
Methanol
Ethanol

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BTU - Heating Value

     Every day millions of cubic feet of natural gas flow through pipelines around the world. The heating value, measured as BTU, determines the cost and ultimate value of the natural gas. Natural gas may either be in a gas or liquid phase, where larger hydrocarbons always have a higher heating value. The rugged and reliable Series 600 laboratory and Companion portable versions of the DPS BTU GC Systems automatically sample and analyze the natural gases coming from these pipelines. It takes less than 2 minutes to analyze C1 – C5 hydrocarbons by our sensitive FID detector, and we don’t program the column oven, so that samples can be run one after another quickly. After each analysis the BTU value is automatically calculated and reported. The GC Systems can also be configured with a second detector to measure whole gas components and a methanizer for Carbon Dioxide. The fully integrated BTU GC Systems are small and lightweight and all PetroChemical DPS systems are modular for expandability, upgrades, and easy service.
Example Compounds:
Methane
Ethane
Propane
iso-Butane
n-Butane
iso-Pentane
n-Pentane
Hexane

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Freon Gases

     For over 80 years, chlorofluorocarbons have been the compounds of choice to use as refrigerants, which are compounds used in heat cycles that undergo a phase change from a gas to a liquid and back. Until concerns about depletion of the ozone layer, global warming, and the rise in cases of skin cancer. In the 1980’s, the most widely used refrigerants were the chlorofluoromethanes, R-12 and R-22, with R-12 being more common in automotive air conditioning and small refrigerators, and R-22 being used for residential and light commercial air conditioning, refrigerators, and freezers. More recently, less ozone destructive compounds like Freon 134, which is a fluorocarbon only, have been developed to replace the ozone depleting chlorofluorocarbons. We designed the DPS Freon Gases GC Systems with safety in mind to check the purity of the Freon, monitor workplace conditions, detect leaking refrigerants, or monitor concentrations in the atmosphere. Let the latest designed high resolution column and the sensitive FID detector do the hard work for you. We have also added a Gas Sampling Valve to automate your sampling and analysis. The fast heating and rapid cooling column oven in every DPS GC vastly increases your sample throughput. The fully integrated Freon Gases GC Systems are small and lightweight and all PetroChemical DPS systems are modular for expandability, upgrades, and easy service.
Example Compounds:
Freon-12
Freon-113
Freon-114
etc.

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Hydrocarbon Fuels

     From Aviation Fuel, to Gasoline, to Kerosene, to Crude oil and everything in between, Gas Chromatography has been the separation instrument of choice for over 50 years. There are literally hundreds of GC methods for liquid petroleum hydrocarbons analysis from the Petroleum, Chemical, and Environmental industries. Although each method is distinct, most rely on latest designed high resolution capillary columns and the sensitive FID detector. Let our experts help you determine the exact DPS Hydrocarbon Fuels GC System components for your specific requirements with either our Series 600 Lab GC, or the Portable Companion. With the Lab GC we have added a Split/Splitless injector to perform the dilutions for you. The fast heating and rapid cooling column oven in every DPS GC vastly increases your sample throughput. The fully integrated Hydrocarbon Fuels GC Systems are small and lightweight and all PetroChemical DPS systems are modular for expandability, upgrades, and easy service.
Example Compounds:
Jet Fuel
Gasoline
Mineral Spirits
Kerosene
Diesel
Motor Oil
etc.

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Hydrocarbon Gases

     In Natural Gas and other hydrocarbon products, the separations of the light hydrocarbon gases in the C1 – C4 range have always been a challenge. The compound separations are economically critical, because the compounds determine the BTU value, which dictates the value of the gas product. The isomers of the C2’s and C4’s have, in the past, been particularly difficult to separate. GC Systems have been configured with multiple columns and detectors and complex valve systems to attempt to solve the analysis problem. The development of capillary columns for light hydrocarbon separations has helped tremendously. We configure the DPS Hydrocarbon Gases GC System with the latest designed high resolution capillary column and the sensitive FID detector to quickly detect these compounds. In the Series 600 we have added a Split/Splitless injector to dilute concentrated gas samples for you. The fast heating and rapid cooling column oven in every DPS GC assures rapid sample turnaround. We have added a gas sampling valve to increase your throughput by automating the sampling and then injecting samples for you. The fully integrated Hydrocarbon Gases GC Systems are small and lightweight and all PetroChemical DPS systems are modular for expandability, upgrades, and easy service.
Example Compounds:
Methane
Ethylene
Ethene
Acetylene
Propane
Propylene
Cyclopropane
Propadiene
Propyne
iso-Butane
n-Butane
1-Butene
cis-2-Butene
trans-2-Butene
1,3,-Butadiene

iso-Pentane
n-Pentane
Trichloroethylene

Toluene
Tetrachloroethylene
Ethylbenzene
P Xylenes

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Methods 25 & 25A - C1-C6 Hydrocarbons

     Methane is a gas that is naturally formed from the decomposition of biological materials and also produced in many industrial processes. Although Methane is not usually considered an environmental pollutant, the non-Methane composition of gas samples around cities, in industrial areas, and at waste sites is of greater concern. DPS has engineered the Method 25 & 25A GC System, utilizing a Backflush plumbing configuration, to analyze these compounds. Method 25 is for methane and non-methane hydrocarbons, while Method 25A is for total hydrocarbons. The GC System is exactly the same, but not only limited to these analyses, it can also separate the individual C1 – C6 hydrocarbons to further identify the gas sample. Using the rugged and reliable Series 600 Lab GC, or Companion 1 Portable GC, the DPS Method 25 & 25A GC System automatically samples and analyzes the C1 – C6 hydrocarbons using our sensitive FID detector. The fully integrated Method 25 & 25 A GC System is small and lightweight and all PetroChemical DPS systems are modular for expandability, upgrades, and easy service.
Example Compounds:
Methane
Ethane
Propane
Butane
Pentane
Hexane
Total Hydrocarbons

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Mine Safety

     In every mine there is a chance that the Gases naturally occurring might build up to a high enough concentration to become explosive. The monitoring of these gas concentrations, therefore becomes a concern to maintain the safety of the mine workers. The key compounds of interest are Hydrocarbons in the C1 – C2 range and Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide. These light hydrocarbon gases have always been a challenge to separate. The development of capillary columns for light hydrocarbon separations has helped tremendously. We configure the DPS Mine Safety GC System with these latest designed high resolution capillary column and the sensitive FID, to quickly detect these potentially explosive compounds in less than 2 minutes. We have added a Vacuum Pump and Gas Sample Valve to fully automate the sample analysis. The fast heating and rapid cooling column oven in every DPS GC assures rapid sample turnaround. The fully integrated Mine Safety GC System is small and lightweight and all PetroChemical DPS systems are modular for expandability, upgrades, and easy service.
Example Compounds:
Carbon Monoxide
Methane
Carbon Dioxide
C2+ Hydrocarbons

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Mud-Logging

     The process of Mud-logging involves collecting, analyzing and recording the meaningful solids, fluids, and gasses brought to the surface by the drilling fluid (mud). For the gas analysis portion of the mud-logging process, the rugged and reliable DPS Mud-logging GC System automatically samples and analyzes the gases coming out of the mud for methane and heavier hydrocarbons using a sensitive FID detector. The entire cycle time for speciation of C1 – C5 hydrocarbons is less than 2 minutes and the BTU value is automatically calculated. A 2nd FID detector is added to determine total hydrocarbons at the same time. Using a built-in air compressor, the entire system runs off one tank of hydrogen. Adding a methanizer to the FID to analyze CO2 is especially helpful for monitoring a well once you have hit pay dirt! The fully integrated Mud-logging GC Systems are small and lightweight and all PetroChemical DPS systems are modular for expandability, upgrades, and easy service.
Example Compounds:
Methane
Ethane
Propane
iso-Butane
n-Butane
iso-Pentane
n-Pentane
Hexane

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View Mud-Logging Video


Natural Gas - Heating Value & Permanent Gases

     Every day millions of cubic feet of natural gas flow through pipelines around the world. The heating value, measured as BTU, determines the cost and ultimate value of the natural gas. The natural gas may either be in a gas or liquid phase, where larger hydrocarbons always have a higher heating value. Additionally, it is important to know the contribution of the Permanent Gases (H2, O2, N2, CO & CO2) in the sample. DPS has engineered a GC system to analyze all of these compounds simultaneously using the rugged and reliable Series 600 Lab GC, or Companion 2 Portable GC. The DPS Natural Gas GC Systems automatically sample and analyze the natural gases coming from these pipelines. The analysis of C1 – C5 hydrocarbons by our sensitive FID detector, Permanent Gases with the universal HID detector, and a Methanizer for the Carbon Dioxide. The BTU value is automatically calculated and reported after each analysis. The fully integrated Natural Gas GC Systems are small and lightweight and all PetroChemical DPS systems are modular for expandability, upgrades, and easy service.
Example Compounds:
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Methane
Carbon Monoxide
Carbon Dioxide
Ethane
Propane
iso-Butane
n-Butane
iso-Pentane
n-Pentane
Hexane

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View Natural Gas Video

Oxygenates in Gasoline - D4815

     With the dramatic increase in reformulated gasoline production around the world there is an ever increasing demand for the analysis of oxygenates, which are added boost the octane value of these fuels. The DPS Oxygenates GC System uses a polar TCEP pre-column to separate the oxygenates from early eluting hydrocarbons, then back-flushes the retained oxygenates to a high resolution capillary column for separation. Both columns are connected through a 10-port valve and the entire sequence is automated through the Timeline in the DPS Control Software. The identification and quantitation and are performed using a sensitive FID detector following ASTM D4815 guidelines. The DPS Oxygenates GC System is configured to quickly detect these oxygenates in less than 15 minutes. The fast heating and rapid cooling column oven in every DPS GC assures rapid sample turnaround. The fully integrated Oxygenates GC Systems are small and lightweight and all PetroChemical DPS systems are modular for expandability, upgrades, and easy service.
Example Compounds:
Methanol
Ethanol
Isopropanol
Tert-Butanol
n-Propanol
MTBE
sec-Butanol
DIPE
Isobutanol
tert-Pentanol
DME
n-Butanol
TAME
Heavier Hydrocarbons

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Permanent Gases + Sulfur

     The DPS Perma-gas 1 Plus Sulfur GC System is ideal for separating the whole gas components Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Methane, Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide with one injection. Additionally, H2S and C2 through C6 hydrocarbons are easily separated in the same analysis. The sensitive and universal Helium Ionization Detector (HID) from DPS and our innovative 2 column and valve configuration simplifies this analysis. The DPS Perma-gas 1 + Sulfur GC Systems are ideal for ppm level measurements in your high percentage gas samples. Perma-gas 1 + Sulfur GC Systems can be built into our Series 600 Lab GC, or the Portable Companion 2, allowing you to take the analyzer with you into the field. Only a small tank of Helium is need to operate the GC System. The fast heating and rapid cooling column oven in every DPS GC assures rapid sample turnaround. The fully integrated Perma-gas 1 + Sulfur GC Analyzer Systems are small and lightweight and all PetroChemical DPS systems are modular for expandability, upgrades, and easy service.
Example Compounds:
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Methane
Carbon Monoxide
Carbon Dioxide
Ethane
Ethylene
Propane
Acetylene
Propylene
iso-Butane
n-Butane
iso-Pentane
n-Pentane
Hexane
Hydrogen Sulfide
Carbonyl Sulfide
Methyl Mercaptan
Ethyl Mercaptan
Carbon Disulfide
Dimethyl Sulfide
Dimethyl Diulfide

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View PermaGas+Sulfur Video


Perma-Gas - Permanent Gases

     The DPS Perma-gas GC System is ideal for separating the whole gas components Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Methane, Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide with one injection. Additionally, C2 through C6 hydrocarbons are easily separated in the same analysis. The sensitive and universal Helium Ionization Detector (HID) from DPS and our innovative 2 column and valve configuration simplifies this analysis. The DPS Perma-gas GC Systems are ideal for ppm level measurements in your high percentage gas samples. Perma-gas GC Systems can be built into our Series 600 Lab GC, or the Portable Companion 2, allowing you to take the analyzer with you into the field. Only a small tank of Helium is need to operate the GC System. As an option, hydrocarbons up to C30+ can be analyzed at the same time. The fast heating and rapid cooling column oven in every DPS GC assures quick sample turnaround. The fully integrated Perma-gas GC Analyzer Systems are small and lightweight and all Petrochemical DPS systems are modular for expandability, upgrades, and easy service.
Example Compounds:
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Methane
Carbon Monoxide
Carbon Dioxide
Ethane
Propane
Acetylene
Propylene
iso-Butane
n-Butane
iso-Pentane
n-Pentane
Hexane

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View PermaGas+Hydrocarbons Video

Sulfur Compounds

     Analyses of sulfur containing compounds in petroleum products are drawing more attention around the world as governments are passing regulations for products with lower sulfur concentrations, which lead to lower sulfur emissions. There are a host of problems associated with the sampling and analysis of sulfur compounds. First and foremost is that sulfur compounds degrade on metal surfaces, especially hot metal; making sulfur compounds difficult to store. Secondly, you need to differentiate them from the hydrocarbon mixtures for analysis. The DPS Sulfur GC Analyzers answer these problems with an inert sample path, free of hot metal surfaces, the latest analytical column technology, and the sensitive FPD detector. The DPS Sulfur GC Systems are ideal for your complex hydrocarbon mixtures requiring sensitive sulfur measurements. The fast heating and rapid cooling column oven in every DPS GC assures rapid sample turnaround. The fully integrated Sulfur GC Analyzer Systems are small and lightweight and all PetroChemical DPS systems are modular for expandability, upgrades, and easy service.
Example Compounds:
Hydrogen Sulfide
Carbonyl Sulfide
Methyl Mercaptan
Ethyl Mercaptan
Carbon Disulfide
Dimethyl Sulfide
2-Propyl Mercaptan
Allyl Mercaptan
1-Propyl Mercaptan
Ethyl Sulfide
Butyl Mercaptan
Dimethyl Disulfide
Allyl Sulfide
Propyl Sulfide
Butyl Sulfide

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TOGA - Transformer Oil Gas Analysis

     The DPS TOGA GC Systems are designed to analyze oil from electrical insulation materials that may have decomposed under thermal, or electrical stresses. The gaseous decomposition products indicate the type of fault inside the transformer. The DPS TOGA GC Systems separate the whole gas components Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Methane, Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide with one injection. Additionally, Acetylene and Ethylene are also separated and all of the compounds are detected with the sensitive and universal Helium Ionization Detector (HID). Our innovative 2 column and valve configuration simplifies this analysis. The DPS TOGA GC Systems follows ASTM 3612C for gas analysis using headspace injection. The headspace sample can be injected using a multi-vial autosampler, or a single sample headspace accessory can be built into our Series 600 Lab GC, or the Portable Companion 2, allowing you to take the analyzer with you into the field. Only a small tank of Helium is need to operate the GC System. The fast heating and rapid cooling column oven in every DPS GC assures rapid sample turnaround. The fully integrated TOGA GC Analyzer Systems are small and lightweight and all PetroChemical DPS systems are modular for expandability, upgrades, and easy service.
Example Compounds:
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Methane
Carbon Monoxide
Carbon Dioxide
Ethane
Ethylene
Propane
Acetylene
Propylene

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View TOGA Video